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The rise of the Global Social Entrepreneur: A conceptual framework
With global turbulence and increased risk in areas of economics, natural environment, political stability & security, resource challenges and integration challenges, governments and NGOs are less able to address social and civil challenges, making it necessary for the private sector to contribute. Besides MNCs, in sheer number of firms, potential to contribute to GDP, ability to weather environmental shocks and ability to employ, SMEs are an area of future focus. SMEs not only have the opportunity to embed CSR and sustainability practices but their initiators could do so at the start-up stage by becoming social entrepreneurs. Social Entrepreneurship (SE) research is still in the nascent stage (Zahra, Gedajlovic, Neubaum and Shulman 2009; Hervieux , Gedajlovic and Turcotte, 2010; Light 2008). A review by Jones, Coviello and Tang (2011) on International Entrepreneurship research from 1989–2009 finds no specific mention of social entrepreneurship. An important question is, how does SE theory relate to internationalization? International new ventures (INVs) and born globals are entrepreneurial firms, and also the subject of recent research interest in international business. This paper attempts to construct a conceptual model of the various typologies of social, building on previous models, and also providing tentative links with internationalization theory.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, CSR, typology